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Why Does the Kronecker Model Result in Misleading Capacity Estimates?

By Vasanthan Raghavan, Jayesh H. Kotecha and Akbar M. Sayeed

Abstract

Many recent works that study the performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems in practice assume a Kronecker model where the variances of the channel entries, upon decomposition on to the transmit and the receive eigen-bases, admit a separable form. Measurement campaigns, however, show that the Kronecker model results in poor estimates for capacity. Motivated by these observations, a channel model that does not impose a separable structure has been recently proposed and shown to fit the capacity of measured channels better. In this work, we show that this recently proposed modeling framework can be viewed as a natural consequence of channel decomposition on to its canonical coordinates, the transmit and/or the receive eigen-bases. Using tools from random matrix theory, we then establish the theoretical basis behind the Kronecker mismatch at the low- and the high-SNR extremes: 1) Sparsity of the dominant statistical degrees of freedom (DoF) in the true channel at the low-SNR extreme, and 2) Non-regularity of the sparsity structure (disparities in the distribution of the DoF across the rows and the columns) at the high-SNR extreme. Index Terms Correlation, fading channels, information rates, MIMO systems, multiplexing, random matrix theory, sparse systems. I

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