Reality is not user-friendly. To cope with, model, and comprehend a complex reality requires complex systems. Complex systems offer power, but they are not without problems. In our research, high functionality computer systems serve as prototypical examples for complex systems and are used to instantiate our framework of cooperative problem solving in joint human-computer systems. Models play a crucial role in the creation and use of these systems and help to increase their comprehensibility. Three different types of models are discussed in this paper: the designers ' models of users, the users ' models of systems, and the systems ' models of users. Innovative system designs supporting human problem-domain communication and providing design environments illustrate the relevance of these models in making complex systems comprehensible
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