The trend in ADCs and DACs is toward higher speeds and higher resolutions at reduced power levels. Modern data converters generally operate on ±5V (dual supply) or +5V (single supply). In fact, many new converters operate on a single +3V supply. This trend has created a number of design and applications problems which were much less important in earlier data converters, where ±15V supplies and ±10V input ranges were the standard. Lower supply voltages imply smaller input voltage ranges, and hence more susceptibility to noise from all potential sources: power supplies, references, digital signals, EMI/RFI, and probably most important, improper layout, grounding, and decoupling techniques. Single-supply ADCs often have an input range which is not referenced to ground. Finding compatible single-supply drive amplifiers and dealing with level shifting of the input signal in direct-coupled applications also becomes a challenge. In spite of these issues, components are now available which allow extremely high resolutions at low supply voltages and low power. This section discusses th
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