The negative impact of variability on civil systems projects is investigated in research in Lean Construction. However, geometric variability has received little focus. Geometric variations due to tolerances can have costly direct and indirect impacts in civil systems, which include architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) projects. Nevertheless, AEC practitioners and researchers, overall, lack an understanding of how tolerances and tolerance problems propagate throughout a project. In contrast, investigation into manufacturing reveals more advanced techniques and strategies for tolerance management that have resulted in significant improvement in manufacturing efficiency and product quality. This research investigates the application of manufacturing tolerance management techniques and strategies to civil systems. The author looked at many industry practices and reports in-depth on three case studies. The first case investigates structural steel bolt connections on the seismic retrofit of a steel suspension bridge. The second looks at the interface between windows and cast-in-place concrete in a multi-story building. The third deals with the connection 1 between steel roof girders and soldier piles within a slurry wall on a highway tunne
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