Abstract—The exact performance analysis of large-scale software systems with discrete-state approaches is difficult because of the well-known problem of state-space explosion. This paper considers this problem with regard to the stochastic process algebra PEPA, presenting a deterministic approximation to the underlying Markov chain model based on ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of the approximation is assessed by means of a substantial case study of a distributed multithreaded application. Index Terms—Modeling and prediction, ordinary differential equations, Markov processes. Ç
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