Abstract

A pneumonia outbreak reduced the numbers of a wild population of endangered markhors (Capra falconeri) in Tajikistan in 2010. The infection was diagnosed by histologic examination and bacteriologic testing. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was the sole infectious agent detected. Cross-species transmission from domestic goats may have occurred. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae are closely related subspecies of the M. mycoides cluster (1). Whereas M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is the etiologic agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a severe and typically lethal respiratory disease, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum infection is usually not fatal and instead results in chronic inflammation in a variety of organs, including joints, udder, eyes, and lungs (2). M. capricolum subsp. capricolum infection occurs worldwide and appears widespread but has rarely been found in species of small ruminants other than domestic goats and, more occasionally, sheep (2,3). This lack of evidence may be partially because few studies have applied sensitive molecular techniques for its detection in nondomestic ruminants (2,3). Domestic goats can carry M. capricolum subsp. capricolum asymptomatically, notably in the ea

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