Inadequate Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intakes in Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Data from a Seven-Day Weighed Dietary Record
AbstractBackground/aims: It is very important to assess the nutritional intake in patients on dialysis given the high prevalence of poor nutritional status of those in this population. The aim of this study was to assess nutrient intakes in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
A clinical cross-sectional study was conducted over 7 days on 14 dialysis patients (98 days) who were trained to keep a weighed food record and a 7-day food diary. Nutrient intake adequacy was compared with specific guidelines for Italians and dialysis patients.
The mean daily protein intake (0.92 ± 0.36 g/kg) and energy intake (EI; 25.3 ± 7.4 kcal/kg) were inadequate according to the European best practice guidelines (EBPG). The ratio of EI to resting energy expenditure was 1.22. Inadequate intakes, compared to the EBPG, were found for calcium (525 ± 162 mg/day) and iron (8.7 ± 2.1 mg/day). Dietary fiber (14.7 ± 8.7 g/day), niacin (14.4 ± 5.2 mg/day), thiamine (0.8 ± 0.3 mg/day) and riboflavin (1.1 ± 0.4 mg/day) were also inadequate according to the Italian recommended dietary allowances (LARN). HD patients did not display different nutrient intakes between the dialysis days and the interdialytic period. Overall, the percentage of days during which nutrient recommendations were not satisfied ranged from 16 to 100% depending on the nutrient.
Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes in HD and PD patients are largely inadequate compared to the EBPG. The weighed dietary record appears to be a useful and accurate tool for individual assessment of food intake in motivated patients. No nutrient intake differences were found between dialytic and interdialytic days in patients on HD