Ion transport across the plasma membrane of cells involves an inevitable chemical modification of the solutions on both sides. Noninvasive, real-time detection of these subtle ionic signatures is most easily achieved in the extracellular diffusive boundary layer with electrochemical detection. In order to perform these measurements near single cells it is critical to use a device that enables high spatial and temporal resolution. While ion-selective microelectrodes (ISMs) provide the high spatial resolution, they give rise to orders of magnitude increase in the time constant and response time of the microsensors when compared to larger sensors. By constructing and using fast response ISMs biological events as brief as 10?ms have been resolved. The signal-to-noise ratio is enhanced with self-referencing and signal processing techniques, enabling long-term monitoring of small magnitude, steady ion gradients and rapid ionic transients that reflect the physiological and metabolic activity of single cell
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.