associated with neurobehavioral deficits in children. Objectives: We investigated whether OP exposure, as measured by urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in pregnant women and their children, was associated with attention-related outcomes among Mexican-American children living in an agricultural region of California. Me t h o d s: Children were assessed at ages 3.5 years (n = 331) and 5 years (n = 323). Mothers com‑ pleted the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We administered the NEPSY-II visual attention sub‑ test to children at 3.5 years and Conners ’ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at 5 years. The K-CPT yielded a standardized attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Confidence Index score. Psychometricians scored behavior of the 5-year-olds during testing using the Hillside Behavior Rating Scale. Res u l t s: Prenatal DAPs (nanomoles per liter) were nonsignificantly associated with maternal report of attention problems and ADHD at age 3.5 years but were significantly related at age 5 years [CBCL attention problems: β = 0.7 points; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.2–1.2; ADHD: β = 1.3; 95 % CI, 0.4–2.1]. Prenatal DAPs were associated with scores on the K-CPT ADHD Confidence Index> 70th percentile [odds ratio (OR) = 5.1; 95 % CI, 1.7–15.7] and with a composite ADH
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