Neuro-hormonal regulation of stress response and its impact on immunity of domestic animals

Abstract

Stres je nespecifični odgovor organizma na stresor kojeg organizam doživljava kao prijetnju homeostazi. Svaki stresor prouzroči stres i specifičnu akciju, a očitovanje bolesti, osim o specifičnoj akciji stresora, ovisi o unutarnjim čimbenicima jedinke (dob, spol, pasmina, gensko naslijeđe) i vanjskim čimbenicima (hranidba, način držanja i dr.). Razlikuju se dva tipa stresa: pozitivni (eustres) i negativni stres (distres). Stresni odgovor je korisna fiziološka reakcija na stres, a sastoji se od tri faze: faze alarmne reakcije, faze rezistencije i faze iscrpljenosti, a čine ga kombinacija promjene ponašanja, odgovora autonomnog živčanog sustava te neuroendokrinog i imunološkog odgovora. Krajnji rezultat stresnog odgovora može biti povratak u homeostazu ili razvoj patološkog stanja. Glavnu ulogu u regulaciji stresnog odgovora imaju hormoni nadbubrežne žlijezde i simpatički živčani sustav. Stres može suprimirati, potencirati ili ne imati nikakav učinak na imunosni sustav ovisno o tipu stresora (psihički, fizički itd.), o genskim svojstvima jedinke, starosti, društvenoj hijerarhiji i akutnom ili kroničnom tijeku djelovanja. Akutni stres pobuđuje staničnu imunost dok kronični stres stimulira humoralnu imunost i inhibira staničnu djelujući na ekspresiju citokina te tako utječe na prijemljivost za mikroorgranizme i tijek infekcije. Pri dužem djelovanju stresora imunosni sustav je suprimiran posredstvom osi hipotalamus- hipofiza-nadbubrežna žlijezda. Utjecajem na gensko naslijeđe kao na unutarnji čimbenik, selekcijskim uzgojem se pokušava smanjiti osjetljivost životinja na stres što posljedično rezultira bržim rastom, boljom rasplodnom sposobnošću i smanjenom pojavnošću bolesti.Stress is a non-specific response of the body to a stressor that is perceived as a threat to homeostasis. Each stressor causes stress and a specific action. Manifestation of the disease dependsonthespecificactionofthestressor, and specific internal (age, gender, breed, genetic inheritance) and external (nutrition, housing conditions, etc.) factors. There are two types of stress, positive (eustress) and negative stress (distress). The stress response is a useful physiological response and consists of three phases: alarm reaction, resistance phase and exhaustion phase. It is a combination of behavioral responses, responses of the autonomic nervous system, and neuroendocrine and immune response. The final result of stress response can be the reestablishment of homeostasis or the development of pathological conditions. The main roles in the regulation of stress response are played by the adrenal hormones and the sympathetic nervous system. Stress can suppress, potentiate or have no effect on the immune system, depending on the type of stressor (mental, physical, etc.), genetic properties of the individual, age, social hierarchy and whether the effects are acute or chronic. Acute stress enhances cellular immunity while chronic stress enhances humural immunity suppressing cellular immunity and increasing susceptibility to infection. If stress is prolonged, the immune system is suppressed through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis. The influence of genetic heritage as an intrinsic factor is used to reduce the sensitivity of animals to stress in order to support growth and reproductive capability and to reduce the incidence of disease

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