Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

From divergence to convergence: re-evaluating the history behind China’s economic boom

By Loren Brandt, Debin Ma and Thomas G. Rawski


China’s long-term economic dynamics pose a formidable challenge to economic historians. The Qing Empire (1644-1911), the world’s largest national economy prior to the 19th century, experienced a tripling of population during the 17th and 18th centuries with no signs of diminishing per capita income. In some regions, the standard of living may have matched levels recorded in advanced regions of Western Europe. However, with the Industrial Revolution a vast gap emerged between newly rich industrial nations and China’s lagging economy. Only with an unprecedented growth spurt beginning in the late 1970s has the gap separating China from the global leaders been substantially diminished, and China regained its former standing among the world’s largest economies. This essay develops an integrated framework for understanding this entire history, including both the long period of divergence and the more recent convergent trend. The analysis sets out to explain how deeply embedded political and economic institutions that had contributed to a long process of extensive growth subsequently prevented China from capturing the benefits associated with new technologies and information arising from the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, the gradual erosion of these historic constraints and of new obstacles created by socialist planning eventually opened the door to China’s current boom. Our analysis links China’s recent economic development to important elements of its past, while using the success of the last three decades to provide fresh perspectives on the critical obstacles undermining earlier modernization efforts, and their removal over the last century and a half

Topics: D204 Modern History, DS Asia, HC Economic History and Conditions
Publisher: London School of Economics and Political Science
Year: 2012
OAI identifier:
Provided by: LSE Research Online

Suggested articles


  1. (1980). (Cambridge studies in Chinese history, literature and institutions.). Cambridge: doi
  2. (2011). (The Eastward Diffusion of Western Studies in Late Qing).
  3. (2010). (The tale of a snake-catcher). https// LONG Denggao.
  4. (1981). (王亚南). 中国官僚政治研究 Zhongguo guanliao zhengzhi yanjiu [The Politics of Chinese Bureaucracy]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.
  5. (1994). 1840-1949 (On the History of Chinese Urban Real Estate 1840-1949),
  6. (1993). 1898-1912: the Xinzheng Revolution and Japan. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Council on East Asian Studies. doi
  7. 1964-65. Manshū kaihatsu yonjū nenshi [Forty-year History of Development in Manchuria]. 3 vols. Tokyo: Manshū kaihatsu yonjū nenshi kankōkai.
  8. (2000). A Century of Foreign Investment in the Third World. Florence doi
  9. (1969). A Concise Economic History of Modern doi
  10. (2000). A Critical Survey of Recent Research in Chinese Economic History." doi
  11. (1966). A Documentary Study of Chinese Landlordism in Late Ch'ing and Early Republican Kiangnan." doi
  12. (2008). A Political Economy of China’s Economic Transition.” doi
  13. (1962). A Revolution in the Chinese Iron and Coal Industries During the Northern Sung, 960-1126 A.D." doi
  14. (2010). Abortion in Late Imperial China: Routine Birth Control or Crisis Intervention?" doi
  15. (1972). Agricultural Change and the Peasant Economy of South China. Cambridge: doi
  16. (1983). Agriculture in China's Modern Economic Development. Cambridge and New York: doi
  17. (1955). An Outline of the Naito Hypothesis and its Effects on doi
  18. (1995). Arbitrage, China, and World Trade in the Early Modern Period,” doi
  19. (2001). Asian Population History.
  20. (2002). Back-Alley Banking: Private Entrepreneurs in China. doi
  21. (2010). Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can’t Explain the Modern World. Chicago: doi
  22. (2009). Breaking Through: the Birth of China’s Opening-Up Policy. Translated by Ling Yuan and Zhang Siying. Oxford and New York : doi
  23. (1951). British Trade and the Opening of China 1800-1842. Cambridge: doi
  24. (2006). Caichan quanli de pinkun;
  25. (1989). Change and Continuity in Chinese Local History: The Development of Huizhou Prefecture, 800 to 1800. Leiden ; doi
  26. (2006). China and Capitalism: A History of Business Enterprise in Modern China. doi
  27. (1994). China and the Manila Galleons.” doi
  28. (2008). China during the Great Depression: Market, State, and the World Economy, 1929-1937. Cambridge MA: doi
  29. (1994). China in the World Economy. Washington DC: doi
  30. (2005). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. doi
  31. (1997). China Transformed: Historical Change and the Limits of European Experience. doi
  32. (2006). China Upside Down: Currency, Society, and Ideologies, doi
  33. (1995). China, Unincorporated: Company Law and Business Enterprise in Twentieth Century China." doi
  34. (1990). China's (Uneven) Progress against Poverty."
  35. (1972). China's Cellular Economy: Some Economic Trends Since doi
  36. (1978). China's Demographic Evolution 1850-1953 Reconsidered." doi
  37. (1983). China's Economic Growth since doi
  38. (2002). China's Economic Transformation. doi
  39. (1974). China's Foreign Trade Statistics, doi
  40. (2008). China's Great Economic Transformation," doi
  41. (2003). China's Industrial State-Owned Enterprises: Between Profitability and Bankruptcy. Singapore and Hong Kong: World Scientific. doi
  42. (2005). China's Ownership Transformation: Process, Outcomes, Prospects. Washington DC: doi
  43. (1987). China's Political Economy: the Quest for Development Since doi
  44. (1981). China's Silk Trade: Traditional Industry in the Modern World, doi
  45. (1980). China's Transition to Industrialism: Producer Goods and Economic Development in the Twentieth Century. Ann Arbor: doi
  46. (1967). China’s Economic System. doi
  47. (2008). China’s Embrace of Globalization,” in China's Great Economic Transformation. Loren Brandt and Thomas G. Rawski eds. Cambridge and New York: doi
  48. (1976). China’s Examination Hell. Translated by Conrad Shirokauer. NY and Tokyo: doi
  49. (2008). China’s Financial System: Past, Present, and Future. doi
  50. (2008). China’s Fiscal System: A Work doi
  51. (2008). China’s Industrial Development," doi
  52. (2003). China’s Transition to a Market Economy: How Far Across the River?” In
  53. (2006). China’s Trapped Transition: The Limits of Developmental Autocracy. Cambridge MA: doi
  54. (2005). China’s Unequal Treaties: Narrating National History. Lanham MD: doi
  55. (1985). Chinese Agriculture and the International Economy, 1870-1930: A Reassessment." doi
  56. (2000). Chinese Capitalism, 1522-1840. English translation by LI Zhengde, doi
  57. (2009). Chinese Economic Development. doi
  58. (2007). Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run. 2nd ed, rev. and updated. Paris: Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. doi
  59. (1967). Chinese Economic Statistics: A Handbook for Mainland China. doi
  60. (1930). Chinese Farm Economy: A Study of 2866 Farms in Seventeen Localiaties and Seven Provinces in China." Chicago: doi
  61. (2008). Chinese Guilds from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Centuries: An Overview." International Review of Social History 53, no. Supplement doi
  62. (1995). Chinese Historical Microdemography. doi
  63. (1998). Chinese History: a Manual. doi
  64. (1957). Chinese Society in Thailand. doi
  65. (2004). Chūgoku kinsei zaiseishi no kenkyū 中国近世財政史の研究 [A Study of China’s Early Modern Fiscal History]. Kyoto:
  66. (1977). Cities and the Hierarchy of Local Systems,"
  67. (1984). Coal Mining in China's Economy and Society, doi
  68. (1989). Commercialization and Agricultural Development: Central and doi
  69. (2008). Commitment, Coercion and Markets: The Nature and Dynamics of Institutions Supporting Exchange.” Chapter 28 doi
  70. (1996). Confucian Tradtions in East Asian Modernity: Moral Education and Economic Culture in Japan and the Four Mini-Dragons. Cambridge MA: doi
  71. (1953). Contrasting Factors doi
  72. (1989). Coping With Transaction Costs: The Case of Merchant Associations in the Ch’ing Period.”
  73. (1984). Corn at Interest: the Extent and
  74. (2004). Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong. doi
  75. (1996). Credit, Incentives, and Reputation: A Hedonic Analysis of Contractual Wage Profiles," doi
  76. (1988). Culture, Power, and the State: Rural North doi
  77. (1978). Customary Law and the Economic Growth of China during the Ch'ing Period." Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i
  78. Debin 2011c. “The Rise of Modern Shanghai: 1900–1936: An Institutional Perspective,” chapter 2
  79. (1987). Demographic Consequences of the Great Leap Forward doi
  80. (2002). Dentō Chūgoku no rekishi jinkōgaku [Historical Demography of Traditional China]. Shakai keizai shigaku [Research in Socio-economic History]
  81. (2003). Development and Its Deadlock in Imperial China, 221 B.C. -1840 A.D." doi
  82. (2003). Duoshijiao kan Jiangnan jingjishi, 1250-1850 [Multi-perspective View of Jiangnan's Economic History, 1250-1850]. Beijing: Shenghuo, dushu, xinzhi sanlian shudian.
  83. (2002). Economic Developments, 1644–1800.” In The Cambridge History of China, doi
  84. (1989). Economic Growth in Prewar China. doi
  85. (2008). Economic Growth in the Lower Yangzi Region of China in 1911–1937: A Quantitative and Historical Analysis.” doi
  86. (1994). Economic Performance through Time.” doi
  87. (1980). Economic Trends in the Late Ch'ing Empire, 1870–1911.” Chapter 1 in The Cambridge History of China. Volume 11 Part 2. Cambridge: doi
  88. (1979). Education and Popular Literacy in Ch'ing China. Ann Arbor: doi
  89. (2010). Evolution of Living Standards and Human Capital doi
  90. (1987). Exhausting the Earth: State and Peasant in Hunan, doi
  91. (2006). Exotic Commodities: Modern Objects and Everyday Life in China. doi
  92. (1984). Famine in China, 1958-61." doi
  93. (1996). Federalism, Chinese Style: The Political Basis for Economic Success.” World Politics doi
  94. (2007). Fighting Famine in North China: State, Market, and Environmental Decline, doi
  95. (2008). Forecasting China's Economic Growth to 2025," in China's Great Economic Transformation. Loren Brandt and Thomas G. Rawski eds. Cambridge and New York: doi
  96. (2006). Foreign Investment and Development: An Historical Perspective.” Background paper for the “World Economic and Social Survey for 2006.” Available at
  97. (1998). Forging reform in China: the Fate of State-owned Industry. Cambridge and New York. doi
  98. (2008). From Local Experiments to National Policy: The Origins of China’s Distinctive Policy Process.”
  99. (1967). Government as an Obstacle to Industrialization: The Case of Nineteenth-Century China." doi
  100. (2010). Government Transformation and Public Finance.” doi
  101. (1995). Growing Out of the Plan: Chinese Economic Reform, doi
  102. (2008). Growth and Structural Transformation in China," doi
  103. (1988). Growth Recurring: Economic Change in World History. doi
  104. (1976). Guerrilla Economy: the Development of the Shensi-Kansu-Ninghsia Border Region, doi
  105. (1970). Handicraft and Manufactured Cotton Textiles in China, doi
  106. (1984). Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese City, doi
  107. (1994). Harvesting Mountains: Fujian and the China Tea Trade, doi
  108. (1986). Hierarchies and Bureaucracies: On the Role of Collusion in Organizations."
  109. (2005). History of Interest Rates. doi
  110. (1958). Hong Kong University Press. 118 Feuerwerker, doi
  111. (1993). Idea Gaps and Object Gaps in Economic Development." doi
  112. (2000). Incentives, Information, and Organizational Form." doi
  113. (2011). Inside and Outside: The Modernized Hierarchy that Runs China.” Paper prepared for Legal Order,
  114. (2005). Institutions and Knowledge: A Review and Reflection on the Historiography of 18th-20th Century China.” Australian Economic History Review, doi
  115. (2006). Institutions and the Path to the Modern Economy: Lessons from Medieval Trade. Cambridge: doi
  116. (2005). Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth.” doi
  117. (2010). Interest-Free Loans between Villagers," doi
  118. (1937). International Labour Office. The World Textile Industry: Economic and Social Problems. 2 vols.
  119. (1989). Interpreting New Evidence About China and U.S. doi
  120. (1977). Introduction: Urban Development in Imperial China,"
  121. (2011). Is China's Development Success Transferable?"
  122. (1973). Japanese Economic Growth: Trend Acceleration in the Twentieth Century. doi
  123. (2010). Jiangnan de zaoqi gongyehua: 1550-1850 [Jiangnan's Early Industrialization, 1550-1850]. Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue chubanshe. doi
  124. (2000). Jiangnan de zaoqi gongyehua: 1550-1850 nian [Jiangnan's Early Industrialization, 1550-1850]. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe. doi
  125. (1988). Kyū Nihon shokuminchi keizai tōkei: suikei to bunseki [Economic Statistics of Japan’s Former Colonies: Estimation and Analysis]. Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Shinposha.
  126. (1932). Land and Labour in China. doi
  127. (1973). Land Reform in the People's Republic of China; Institutional Transformation in Agriculture. doi
  128. (1973). Land Taxation in Imperial China, doi
  129. (1937). Land Utilization in China, a Study of 16,786 doi
  130. (1978). Landlord and Labor in Late Imperial China: Case Studies from Shandong. doi
  131. (1980). Law and Society in Traditional China. doi
  132. (2004). Learning, Institutions, and Economic Performance" doi
  133. (2004). Life Under Pressure: Mortality and Living Standards doi
  134. (2002). Lilun, fangfa, fazhan qushi: Zhongguo jingjishi yanjiu xintan [Theory, Method, Development Trends: New Directions for Research on China's Economic History]. Beijing: Qinghua daxue chubanshe.
  135. (1987). Local Merchants and the Chinese Bureaucracy, doi
  136. (2002). Malthus in State Space: Macro EconomicDemographic Relations in English History, 1540 to 1870." doi
  137. (1986). Man and Land in Chinese History: An Economic Analysis. doi
  138. (2010). Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, doi
  139. (1964). Marketing and Social Structure in Rural China. Ann Arbor: Association for Asian Studies. doi
  140. (2007). Markets in China and Europe on the Eve of the Industrial Revolution." doi
  141. (1985). Material Allocation and Decentralization: Impact of the Local Sector on Industrial Reform,"
  142. (1961). Materials for the Study of the Economic History of Modern China." doi
  143. (1994). Merchant Dispute Mediation in Twentieth Century Zigong, Sichuan.“ In Civil Law in Qing and Republican China,
  144. (1975). Mid-Ch'ing Rice Markets and Trade: An Essay in Price History. doi
  145. (2000). Ming Qing Lüdian yu tianli [Ming Qing Legal Codes and Statures].
  146. (2003). Ming Qing shidai de ‘Zhaojia huidu’ wenti” [The Problem of “Compensation and Repurchase”
  147. (1998). Ming Qing shiqi de minshi shenpan yu minjian qiyue [Civil Trials and Civil Contracts in Ming and Qing China], edited by WANG Yaxin and LIANG Zhiping.
  148. (1992). Ming-Qing Guilds." Ming Qing yanjiu.
  149. (1987). Ming-Qing shidai Jiangnan shizhen yanjiu [Studies on Jiangnan cities and towns in Ming and Qing]. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social
  150. (1988). Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, doi
  151. (1991). Nourish the People: The State Civilian Granary System doi
  152. (1998). On the Trail of China's Phantom Farmers." doi
  153. (2005). On Their Own Terms: doi
  154. (1995). Organizational Diseconomies of Scale." doi
  155. Oriental Despotism: a Comparative Study of Total Power. New Haven: doi
  156. (2004). Osamu Saito and Ronald Toby Eds. doi
  157. (1990). Patching the Holes in Chinese Genealogies: Mortality in the Lineage Populations of Tongcheng County, 1300-1880." doi
  158. (2005). Political Turnover and Economic Performance: The Incentive Role of Personnel Control in China” (with Hongbin Li), doi
  159. (2002). Positive Check or Chinese Checks?" doi
  160. (2001). Power and Wealth in Rural China: the Political Economy of Institutional Change. doi
  161. (1992). Presidential Address: Questions About China's Early Modern Economic History That I Wish I Could Answer." doi
  162. (2009). Prisoner of the State: the Secret Journal of Zhao Ziyang. Translated and edited by Bao Pu, Renee Chiang, and Adi Ignatius.
  163. (2011). Property Rights, Land and Law doi
  164. (1984). Qichao 梁启超选集 (Selected Works of LIANG Qichao) edited by doi
  165. (2006). Recent Developments in China’s Labor Economy.” doi
  166. (2000). Redistribution in a Decentralized Economy: Growth and Inflation in China under Reform," doi
  167. (2001). Reform without Losers: An Interpretation of China's Dual-Track Approach to Transition," doi
  168. (1977). Regional Urbanization in Nineteenth-Century China,"
  169. (1998). ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. doi
  170. (1971). Resource Allocation in Traditional Agriculture: Republican doi
  171. (1990). Review of Kang Chao, Man and Land in Chinese History. doi
  172. (1988). Review of Kang Chao, Man and Land in Chinese History. American Historical Review 93.2, doi
  173. (1998). Revising the Malthusian Narrative: The Comparative Study of Population Dynamics in Late Imperial China." doi
  174. (2004). Revisiting the Song Monetary Revolution: A Review Essay." doi
  175. (2005). Rong Yiren.” Obituary posted at
  176. (1992). Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China." doi
  177. (1992). Secular Trends of Rice Prices in the Yangzi Delta, 1638-1935," in Chinese History in Economic Perspective.
  178. (1995). Securing Trust and Stability”
  179. (1984). Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China doi
  180. (1978). Self-strengthening: the Pursuit of Western Technology.” In doi
  181. (2009). Shallow Water and Heavy Boat: Market Mechanism
  182. (1976). Shanghai Old-style Banks (chʻien-chuang), 1800-1935: A Traditional Institution in a Changing Society. Ann Arbor: doi
  183. (1993). Shanghai: An Emerging Jiangnan Port, 1683-1840,"
  184. (1951). Shanhai no girudo [The Guilds of Shanghai].
  185. (1987). Sichuan's Population in the Nineteenth Century: Lessons from Disaggregated Data." doi
  186. (2007). Social Capabilities and Chinese Economic Growth,"
  187. (1998). Social Power and Legal Culture: Litigation Masters in Late Imperial China. Stanford: doi
  188. (1982). Social Structure and Population Change: doi
  189. (2001). Soft Budget Constraint and Inflation Cycles: A Positive Model of the Macro-Dynamics in China During Transition," doi
  190. (2009). Songdai jingjishi [宋代经济卷史 Economic history of Song]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  191. (1989). Sources of Capital for Modern Industrial Enterprises in late Ch'ing China,"
  192. (1992). Squaring Accounts: Commercial Bookkeeping Methods and Capitalist Rationalism in Late Qing and Republican China” doi
  193. (1974). Taxation and Governmental Finance in Sixteenth-century Ming China. doi
  194. (2010). Teaching to the Tests: An Economic Analysis of Traditional and Yusuf, Shahid Kaoru Nabeshima and
  195. (1959). The Agrarian Origins of Modern Japan. doi
  196. (2009). The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective. doi
  197. (2010). The Cambridge illustrated history of China. Cambridge: doi
  198. (2003). The China Miracle: Development Strategy and Economic Reform. Hong Kong: doi
  199. (1968). The Chinese Economy, 1912-1949. Ann Arbor:
  200. (1980). The Chinese Economy, Past and Present. doi
  201. (2007). The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth. doi
  202. (1955). The Chinese Gentry: Studies on Their Role doi
  203. (1970). The Chinese Peasant Economy: Agricultural Development in Hopei and Shantung, 1890.1949. Cambridge MA: doi
  204. (1986). The Commercial Revolution in Nineteenth-century China: the Rise of Sino-Western Mercantile Capitalism. doi
  205. (1965). The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure. doi
  206. (1975). The Currencies of China: an Investigation of Silver & Gold Transactions Affecting China with a Section on Copper.
  207. (1969). The Development of Chinese Agriculture, doi
  208. (1980). The Distribution of Rural lncomes in China: A Comparison of the 1930s and the 1950s.
  209. (1982). The Economic Development of Manchuria: The Rise of a Frontier Economy. Ann Arbor: doi
  210. (1997). The Economic Emergence of Modern Japan. doi
  211. (2009). The End of a Silver Era: The Consequences of the Breakdown of the Spanish Peso Standard in China and the United States, doi
  212. (2009). The Enlightened Economy: an Economic History of Britain, doi
  213. (1979). The Ewo Filature: A Study doi
  214. (1997). The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500-1815. Cambridge and New York: doi
  215. (2002). The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy. Princeton [N.J.]: doi
  216. (2000). The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. doi
  217. (1944). The Great Transformation. doi
  218. (1936). The Growth and Industrialization of Shanghai. Shanghai: Institute of Pacific Relations.
  219. (1975). The Growth of Producer Industries, 1900-1971,"
  220. (1928). The Guilds of Peking. doi
  221. (1988). The Household Responsibility System in China's Agricultural Reform: A Theoretical and doi
  222. (1962). The Income of the Chinese Gentry. Seattle: University of Washington Press. doi
  223. (1976). The Innovation Decision in Soviet Industry. doi
  224. (1997). The Korean Economy 1945-1995: Performance and Vision for the 21st century. Seoul: Korea Development Institute.
  225. (1962). The Ladder of Success in Imperial China: doi
  226. (1962). The Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism: the T'ung-chih Restoration, doi
  227. (1990). The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. doi
  228. (1989). The Lineage as Business Company: Patronage versus Law in the Development of Chinese Business,"
  229. (1965). The Logic of Collective Action; Public Goods and the Theory of Groups Cambridge MA: doi
  230. (1984). The Magistrate's Tael: Rationalizing Fiscal Reform in Eighteenth-Century Ch'ing China. doi
  231. (2005). The Making of the State Enterprise System in Modern China. Cambridge MA: doi
  232. (1981). The Mandarin-Capitalists from Nanyang: Overseas Chinese Enterprise in the Modernization of China, 1893-1911. Cambridge and New York: doi
  233. (2009). The Move to the South and the Reign of Kao-Tsung (1127-1162)," in The Cambridge History of China: The Sung Dynasty and its Precursors, doi
  234. (1995). The Needham Puzzle: Why the Industrial Revolution Did Not Originate in China." doi
  235. (1958). The Origin of Likin, 1853-1864. Cambridge MA: Chinese Economic and Political Studies, Harvard University; distributed by
  236. (2011). The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. doi
  237. (1977). The Outsiders: The Western Experience in India and China. Ann Arbor: doi
  238. (1978). The Partially Opened Door: Limitations on Economic Change in China in the 1860s." doi
  239. (1985). The Peasant Economy and Social Change in North China. doi
  240. (1990). The Peasant Family and doi
  241. (1993). The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China. Berkeley: doi
  242. (1967). The Reminiscences of Ho Lien (Franklin L Ho) as Told to Crystal Lorch Seidman." China Oral History Project.
  243. (1982). The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities. New Haven: doi
  244. (2001). The Salt Merchants of Tianjin: State-Making and Civil Society in Late Imperial China. Honolulu: doi
  245. (1954). The Salt Merchants of Yang-Chou: A Study of Commercial Capitalism in Eighteenth-Century China." doi
  246. (1986). The Shanghai Capitalists and the Nationalist Government, 1927-1937. 2 nd edition. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Council on East Asian Studies. doi
  247. (2011). The Shanxi Banks.” doi
  248. (1978). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: An Abridgement of Joseph Needham's Original Text. doi
  249. (1982). The Simple Arithmetic of Income Distribution
  250. (1991). The Structure of the Chinese Economy during the Qing Period: Some Thoughts on the 150th Anniversary of the Opium War,"
  251. (1979). The Transfer of Technology to China in the Nineteenth Century: The Role of Direct Foreign Investment." doi
  252. (1995). The Transition from Central Planning: East Asia's Experience,"
  253. (2010). The Troubled Empire: China in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. doi
  254. (2003). The Unending Frontier: An Environmental History of the Early Modern World. doi
  255. (1986). The Workers of Tianjin, doi
  256. (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. doi
  257. (1996). Tō Sō henkakuki nōgyō shakaishi kenkyū [On the Social History of Agriculture During the Tang-Song Transformation] Tokyo: Kyuko Shoin.
  258. (1990). To the People: James Yen and Village China. doi
  259. (2011). Trade and Poverty: When the Third World Fell Behind. Cambridge MA: doi
  260. (1977). Tribute and Profit: Sino-Siamese Trade, 1652-1853. Cambridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies Harvard University: distributed by doi
  261. (1978). Twenty-five Years of Economic Development, doi
  262. (2002). Uncivil Dialogue: Law and Custom Did not Merge into Civil Law under the Qing,” Late Imperial China. doi
  263. (1974). Urban Networks in Ch’ing China and Tokugawa Japan. doi
  264. (2000). Wan Qing caizheng yu shehui bianqian 晚淸财政与社会变迁 [Late Qing Public Finance and Social Transformation]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe.
  265. Was the First to Develop in East Asia,
  266. (2005). Wrestling for Power: The State and the Economy in Later Imperial China, 1000—1770.” Ph.D. Thesis,
  267. (2002). Wu Chengming ji [Collected Works of Wu Chengming]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.
  268. (2010). Xin Zhongguo liushinian tongji ziliao huibian 1949-2008 [China Compendium of Statistics 1949-2008].
  269. (1992). Yōmu undō no kenkyū: Jukyuseiki kohan no Chūgoku ni okeru kōgyōka [The Self-Strengthening Movement: Industrialization in late 19 th-century China]. Tokyō: Kyūko Shoin.
  270. (2011). Yu-Shan Wang and Suisheng Zhao eds.
  271. (2010). Zhongguo de zaoqi jindai jingji: 1820 niandai Huating-Louxian diqu GDP yanjiu [China's Early Modern Economy: A Study of Regional GDP in Huating and Lou Counties during the 1820s]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  272. (2000). Zhongguo gonye jiaotong nengyuan 50-nian tongji ziliao huibian 1949-1999 [50-year Compendium of Statistics on China’s Industry, Transport, and Energy 1949-1999]. Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe.
  273. Zhongguo guonei shengchanzongzhi hesuan lishi ziliao 1952-2004 [Data of Gross Domestic Product of China 1952-2004]. Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe.
  274. (1966). Zhongguo huiguan shilun [Historical survey of China's Landsmannschaften]. Taipei: Xuesheng shuji.
  275. (1958). Zhongguo huobishi [History of Money in China]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe.
  276. (1955). Zhongguo jindai jingjishi tongji ziliao xuanji. 中国近代经 济史统计资料选辑 [Statistical materials on the Economic History of Modern China]. Beijing: Kexue chubanshe.
  277. (2007). Zhongguo jindai jingjishi,
  278. (1999). Zhongguo jingji tongshi Songdai jingjijuan [中国经济通史. 宋代经济卷 General Economic History of China: Song Dynasty]. Beijing: Jingji ribao chubanshe.
  279. (2009). Zhongguo lidai tudi qizheng [Chinese Historical Land Records]. Baoding: Hebeidaxue chubanshe,
  280. (1966). Zhongguo lidai zhengzhi deshi [The Gains and Losses of Chinese Dynastic Politics]. Hong Kong:大中国印刷厂。
  281. (1980). Zhongguo nongye nianjian 1980 [China Agricultural Yearbook
  282. (1993). Zhongguo qiche gongye jingji fenxi [Economic Analysis of China’s Auto Industry]. Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue chubanshe. doi
  283. (2002). Zhongguo renkoushi 中国人口史
  284. (2001). Zhongguo renkoushi: Qing shiqi [History of China’s Population: Qing Era]. Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe.
  285. (1999). Zhongguo renliziben xingcheng ji xianzhuang [Formation and Present Circumstances of Human Capital in China]. Beijing: Jingji kexue chubanshe.
  286. Zhongguo tongji nianjian [China Statistics Yearbook]. Annual. Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe.
  287. (1997). Zhongguo yi min shi. 中国移民史 [History of China’s Migrants]. Fuzhou: Fujian renmin chubanshe.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.