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Maximum information gain in weak or continuous measurements of qudits: complementarity is not enough

By Joshua Combes and Howard M. Wiseman

Abstract

To maximize average information gain for a classical measurement, all outcomes of an observation must be equally likely. The condition of equally likely outcomes may be enforced in quantum theory by ensuring that one's state $\rho$ is maximally different, or complementary, to the measured observable. This requires the ability to perform unitary operations on the state, conditioned on the results of prior measurements. We consider the case of measurement of a component of angular momentum for a qudit (a $D$-dimensional system, with $D=2J+1$). For weak or continuous-in-time (i.e. repeated weak) measurements, we show that the complementarity condition ensures an average improvement, in the rate of purification, of only 2. However, we show that by choosing the optimal control protocol of this type, one can attain the best possible scaling, $O(D^{2})$, for the average improvement. For this protocol the acquisition of information is nearly deterministic. Finally we contrast these results with those for complementarity-based protocols in a register of qbits.Comment: 21 pages, 21 figures. V2 published versio

Topics: Quantum Physics
Year: 2012
DOI identifier: 10.1103/PhysRevX.1.011012
OAI identifier: oai:arXiv.org:1105.0961
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