This paper focuses on reducing memory usage in enumerative model checking, while maintaining the multi-core scalability obtained in earlier work. We present a tree-based multi-core compression method, which works by leveraging sharing among sub-vectors of state vectors. An algorithmic analysis of both worst-case and optimal compression ratios shows the potential to compress even large states to a small constant on average (8 bytes). Our experiments demonstrate that this holds up in practice: the median compression ratio of 279 measured experiments is within 17% of the optimum for tree compression, and five times better than the median compression ratio of SPIN's COLLAPSE compression. Our algorithms are implemented in the LTSmin tool, and our experiments show that for model checking, multi-core tree compression pays its own way: it comes virtually without overhead compared to the fastest hash table-based methods.Comment: 19 page
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