Illustrated by case studies from Europe, North America and the Middle East, this book examines how non-market values can be identified, measured and incorporated into planning evaluation methodologies. The traditional means of assessing planning options, benefit-cost analysis, requires that all effects be expressed in monetary terms and this volume offers alternative approaches. It presents strategies for accomplishing the major purposes of planning evaluation - including the provision of an explicit, replicable basis for public assessment - in alternative ways. Growing demand for public involvement and for accountability in decision making requires better means for accommodating a broad range of concerns in planning evaluation. Methodologies examined include effectiveness-cost and multicriteria analysis, and the book explores how these have been applied in practice in developing special-issue plans, complex regional development strategies, and efforts to analyze the environmental justice implications of major infrastructure projects. Use of scenarios and problem structuring methods by stakeholder groups are also explored
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