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Katevenis: “Scheduling in Switches with Small Internal Buffers: Extended Version

By Nikos Chrysos and Manolis Katevenis


Abstract — Unbuffered crossbars or switching fabrics contain no internal buffers, and function using only input (VOQ) and possibly output queues. Schedulers for such switches are complex, and introduce increased delay at medium loads, because they have to admit at most one cell per input and per output, during each time slot. Buffered crossbars, on the other hand, contain sufficient internal buffering (N 2 buffers) to allow independent schedulers to concurrently forward packets to the same output from any number of inputs. These architectures represent the two extremes in a range of solutions, which we examine here; although intermediate points in this range are of reduced practical interest for crossbars, they are nevertheless quite interesting for switching fabrics, and they may be of interest for optical switches. We find that tolerating two cells per-output per timeslot, using small buffers inside the switch or fabric, sufficies for independent and efficient scheduling. First, we introduce a novel “request-grant ” credit protocol, enabling N inputs to share a small switch buffer. Then, we apply this protocol to a switch with N such buffers, one per output, and we consider the resulting scheduling problem. Interestingly, this looks like unbuffered crossbar schedulers, but it is much simpler because it comprises independent schedulers that can be pipelined. We show that individual buffer sizes do not need to grow, neither with switch size nor with propagation delay. Through simulations, we study performance as a function of the number of cells allowed per-output per-time-slot. For one cell, the switch performs very close to the iSLIP unbuffered crossbar with one iteration. For more cells, performance improves quickly; for 12 cells, packet delay under (smooth) uniform load is practically as low as ideal output queueing. Under unbalanced load, throughput is superior to buffered crossbars, due to better buffer sharing.

Year: 2012
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