Is the EU multi-level governance system weakening the implementation of policies at a state level? It does appear that a clear gap exists between European Union level policy-making and Member State implementation. All too often, EU public policy content and planning are little more than statements of intent without successful adoption. Policy implementation processes are the key follow-up of policy cycles, as they turn ideas into social output. Simona Milio argues that implementation deficiencies are a direct result of the multi-level structure of European governance. Italy, Spain and Poland are studied in order to identify the main factors undermining implementation process. The findings will help guide future strategies to improve implementation processes both within old and new Member States, thus minimising past mistakes in the multi-level system of EU governance
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