The 2003 presidential and parliamentary elections in Rwanda marked the end of the transition from the 1994 genocide, and followed electoral changes introduced by the interim government. The parliamentary elections were notable for being the first time that members of parliament were chosen by direct, universal suffrage since Rwanda gained its independence from Belgium in 1962. This note reflects on the political economy of voting, and the relationship between electoral outcomes and democratic outcomes. It considers whether the 2003 elections represented the origins of democracy or dictatorship in Rwanda
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