TCP has some properties that make it inefficient when used as a transport protocol for wireless links. It has been the subject of many research projects and a number of solutions have been suggested. Most of these proposed solutions are trying to improve TCP’s performance in general without looking at a specific technology. UMTS, the universal mobile telecommunication system, is a new standard for mobile networks. The UMTS radio access network is called UTRAN, UMTS radio access network, and it uses WCDMA, wideband code division multiple access, as its radio access method. When constructing the radio network it would be beneficial if a high error rate could be used for packet-based services. However, such a high error rate would affect the performance of TCP. The introduction of retransmission mechanisms in the radio link control layer reduces the error rates of UMTS. An ensuing problem however is that the delay will vary. The delay or reordering of data due to the retransmissions may cause TCP to underutilize the radio link. TCP’s design is based on the assumption that transmission errors occur rarely. Hence, TCP assumes that all packet losses are due to congestion and it cannot tell congestio
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