Keywords Bamboo, micropropagation, AFLP-markers, pseudospikelets, hybridisation Bamboos are among the economically most important plants world-wide. In Europe bamboos are used as ornamentals for gardens, but there is increasing interest for uses in ecological applications and as energy crops. Biotechnological techniques, including tissue culture, in vitro hybridisation, molecular markers and genetic transformation are crucial for the future of bamboo. Micropropagation of bamboos has allowed to develop a new type of ornamental bamboo that can be produced yearround with a high quality / price ratio and distributed far more widely than classically propagated ornamental bamboos. Molecular markers are used in quality control procedures. Flowering of bamboos is still one of the greatest mysteries in botany, and breeding systems are non-existent. However, flowering can be induced reproducibly in tissue culture, both in seedlings and in adult bamboos, providing the only method for hybridisation. The flowering structures that are used are pseudospikelets, morphologica
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