Several methods of modeling systems are common in TRIZ for problem solving, system simplification, and improvement. Subject – Action – Object models are based on specific physical components of a system and the explicit effects they exert on other components of the system, and are derived from the Su-field modeling method of classical TRIZ. “Operational ” models, generally known as “problem formulator ” models, allow broader definition of a system’s elements to include actions as well as components. Both models focus on whether those elements ultimately contribute useful or harmful effects to the primary purpose of the system or to elements supporting that purpose. There is no direct way of using these models to deal with time-variable elements in the system model, or to deal with different aspects of a problem that occur at different levels of the system. Most TRIZ teachers emphasize the need to clearly identify the problems at each level of the system, and to solve them separately. Causal loop models are useful in TRIZ to identify the system elements and actions in a system that are most pertinent to causing a desired change in performance, and add a powerful ability t
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