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A Binational Study: the State of Migration Flows between Costa Rica and Nicaragua An Analysis of the Economic and Social Implications for Both Countries Prepared for IOM by



1 We do not know if the twenty-first century will be the century of religion, as Malraux prophesied, or the century of women, as Miterrand predicted. For his part, Henry Kissinger proclaimed that the first half of the next century will be American and the other half, Chinese. Who can tell? However, we all have at least one certainty: the beginning of the third millennium will be dominated by problems involving migration flows and refugees. It will be the century of Foreigners. Jean Daniel, Director of Le Nouvel Observateur. Against the homogeneity affirmed and imposed by the State throughout history, historically most civil societies have been made up by a multiplicity of ethnic groups and cultures, which generally have resisted bureaucratic pressures against cultural standardization and ethnic cleansing. Even in ethnically homogeneous societies, like the Japanese or the Spaniard, regional cultural differences (or nationality differences, as in the Spanish case), territorially divide traditions and specific lifestyles, reflected in diverse behavior patters, and some times, in intercultural tensions and conflicts. Jordi Borja and Manuel Castells, La ciudad multicultural

Year: 2001
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