In most manufacturing processes it becomes necessary to change the form of materials in order to bring them to the desired shape for use. Among the metals used in the construction of engineering structures, including the almost endless variety of sIteam and gas engines, compressors, pumping machinery, marine and locomotive engines, special machinery and machine tools, it is evident that cast iron and steel represent by far the chief constituents of such machines. For the manufacture of all the various parts of these structures and machines there has been designed a great variety of machine tools. In these machine J,ools are placed the pieces whose shape it is desired to change, ai id a properly formed and hardened piece of steel is made to cut aVlay a part of the material. The steel used for making the tool for-thus cutting the softer material is called Tool Steel. The time.required to cut away the necessary amount of metal is a
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