Costs of antihyperglycemic treatment and consumables and treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes: Results of a cross-sectional cost evaluation study of long-acting Insulin glargine compared with NPH insulin in Germany (LIVE-DE).
Background: Economic aspects and patient-reported outcomes play an increasing role in the choice of therapeutic options. The aim of the LIVE-DE study (Long-acting insulin glargine versus NPH insulin cost evaluation in Germany[DE]) was to assess expenditures incurred in the care of diabetic patients, as well treatment satisfaction of patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin glargine (GLAR) or NPH insulin (NPH). Patients and methods: A retrospective, non-interventional, cross-sectional study was undertaken in Germany of 1,602 insulin-treated patients (982 on GLAR, 620 on NPH), enrolled from 199 randomly selected general practitioner or internal medicine specialist practices. Total cost of diabetes care (insulins, oral antidiabetic drugs, glucagon use, consumables for insulin administration and blood glucose self-monitoring devices) were calculated from total recorded expenditures, for a period of six months, from the perspective of statutory health insurance. Cost data were obtained from publicly available sources, based on the prices in the year 2007. Patient treatment satisfaction was assessed using previously validated questionnaires (SF-12, PAID, DTSQ, ITEQ). Results: Physicians prescribed GLAR more often than NPH combined with oral antidiabetic drugs (43% vs 16%), whereas NPH was more often used in an intensified insulin regimen compared to GLAR (79% vs 49%). The mean total costs per patient over six months were lower in GLAR than NPH treated patients (658 +/- 258 vs 685 +/- 242 Euros [(sic)];