The incidence of Crohn’s disease (CD) is on the rise in Westernized countries. In the United States, there is estimated to be 1 million patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In most patients, the disease is chronic and only 10 % of patients experience a prolonged remission. The lack of long-term efficacy with traditional medical therapies, as well as safety concerns with the newer biologics, continues to leave significant unmet needs in the treatment of CD. Sustained efforts in search of novel therapeutic options are therefore ongoing. Evidence that a deficient innate immune response toward bacterial flora of the gut may have a primary role in the pathogenesis of CD is growing. Data on NOD2/CARD15 expression suggest that macrophages and epithelial cells could be the site of a primary defect, and T-cell activation might be a secondary effect inducing chronic inflammation as a backup to a defective innate immune system. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of CD, including the role of innate immunity, may lead to therapies targeted to stimulating the innate immune system. Ultimately, advances in CD therapy will allow for safer treatments and better clinical outcomes for this chronic and often debilitating disease. LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the completion of this activity, participants should be able to: 1 Describe the emerging evidence and implications that CD may be due to a primary defect in innate immunity. 2 Assess the efficacy and safety of currently accepted maintenance medications and treatment strategies for CD. 3 Discuss the efficacy and safety of promising agents currently in development for the treatment of CD. INTENDED AUDIENCE This activity has been designed for physicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the treatment of patients with CD
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