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By James P. Bennett, Kyei-sing Kwong, Arthur V. Petty, Rick Krabbe, Hugh Thomas and Cynthia Powell


Gasifiers are high temperature, high pressure containment vessels used to convert carbon feedstock; such as coal or petcoke, into a synthesis gas (also called syngas) composed primarily of H2 and CO. Syngas produced by gasification is used as a fuel in energy production, as a raw material feedstock for chemical synthesis, and can be a source of H2 for a hydrogen based economy. Air cooled slagging gasifiers, one of several gasifier types used in industry, typically operate at temperatures between 1325-1575 o C, and at pressures between 300-1000 psi. They are lined on the hot face with high chrome oxide refractory materials; which may contain up to 95 wt pct chrome oxide, with possible additives of zirconia and alumina also present. Impurities in the carbon feedstock exist in many forms, and can be oxides of Si, Fe, Ca, Al, Na, and S in coal; with additional elements, such as Ni and V, present in petcoke. Depending on the feedstock source, the quantities of impurities generally range from one to over ten pct; leading to ash waste quantities reaching 100 tons/day, or more, in the operation of a single gasifier. Because of the high temperatures used during gasification, the ash by-products liquefy and react with, or penetrate the refractory liner pores; leading to refractory wear and corrosion, and ultimately, premature brick failure. This paper will discuss interactions between slag components and gasifier refractories, with post-mortem analysis of refractory liner failure being presented from systems using coal as a carbon feedstock

Year: 2011
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