Abstract. The availability of semantically annotated image and video assets constitutes a critical prerequisite for the realisation of intelligent knowledge management services pertaining to realistic user needs. Given the extend of the challenges involved in the automatic extraction of such descriptions, manually created metadata play a significant role, further strengthened by their deployment in training and evaluation tasks related to the automatic extraction of content descriptions. The different views taken by the two main approaches towards semantic content description, namely the Semantic Web and MPEG-7, as well as the traits particular to multimedia content due to the multiplicity of information levels involved, have resulted in a variety of image and video annotation tools, adopting varying description aspects. Aiming to provide a common framework of reference and furthermore to highlight open issues, especially with respect to the coverage and the interoperability of the produced metadata, in this chapter we present an overview of the state of the art in image and video annotation tools.