This paper, originally written as an encyclopaedia survey, considers as globalisation all the consequences of the long-term cheapening of, and expansion of the technical possibilities of-transport and communication; a process more or less uninterrupted since the improvements of navigation in the fifteenth century, though recently much accelerated. It considers five main areas of contemporary discussion: 1. How integrated global markets really are. (Not as much as one might think.) 2. How far globalisation erodes the sovereignty of nation-states, reducing their autonomy in making economic policy. (More for some than for others.) 3. The consequences of globalisation for the distribution of income among the world's population; both among nations (equalising for good learners, not for others) and within nations (generally unequalising). 4. The problematic growth of a transnational ‘world society ’ (slow, probably unstoppable, but still a long way from creating a ‘world class system’) and international governance (hesitant and more likely to be hegemonic than conciliar). 5. The interaction of national economic, political, military and cultural power, and the possibilit
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