professor of higher education. Rhoades studies academic labor, higher education, and institutional policy. His publications focus on the restructuring of academic labor and of higher education institutions. His latest book is Academic Capitalism and the New Economy: Markets, State, and Higher Education (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004, coauthored with Sheila Slaughter). Mark F. Smith is a senior policy analyst-higher education for the National Education Association (NEA). He previously served as an NEA organizational specialist in higher education. He advocates the policy goals of the association and its affiliates on behalf of college and university faculty and staff. Smith holds a BA in history and political science from the University of Wisconsin, and an MA in government from Johns Hopkins University. Prior to joining NEA, he served as director of government relations at the AAUP. He is a member of the American Historical Association and the American Political Science Association. Kristine Dougherty, former chief negotiator for the United Faculty of Florida, conducts the HECAS contract searches and language summary for this chapter each year. Faculty members face a dual challenge when confronting the Great Recession. The Obama administration, seeing the benefits of higher education, wishes to stimulate increased access and success in college. Yet states, facing budget shortfalls and unwilling to increase revenues, are cutting higher education appropriations. The result: demand increases as supply declines. State-level retrenchment, in turn, allows administrators a freer hand to restructure, citing severe budgetary challenges. Many universities have capped enrollments and turned away qualified students. The California State University (CSU) system was among the earliest to announce enrollment caps, but 12 states
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