1. Present status of environmental impact and sustainability measurements for horticultural production Environment and sustainability Issues of Concern All development programmes in Zambia depend to some extent upon natural resources. The country is mainly a primary commodity producer of non-renewable resources that require special care, management and application. According to the National Policy on Environment (NPE) document, the country at present faces daunting challenges of de-forestation at the rate of 250-300 thousand ha per year; land degradation in many places verging on desertification; wildlife depletion especially in the protected areas and all accompanied by soil erosion, loss of productivity, inadequate sanitation and air and water pollution. With regard to climatic change, The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Climate Change Country Profile of Zambia reports that the mean annual temperature in Zambia has increased by 1.3°C since 1960, a rate of change which is confidently projected to continue (Zambia Briefings, 2010). This translates to a rate of about 0.6 o C per decade which is ten times higher than the global or Southern African rate of increase in temperature. Thi
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