Engineering biosynthetic pathways for low-cost production of fine chemicals is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to synthetic chemistry routes. In many cases, however, an enzyme in the desired native pathway is missing or difficult to functionally express in a heterologous host, leading to low product yields. An alternative paradigm to using native pathways and their cognate enzymes is de novo pathway construction through incorporation of engineered substrate-promiscuous enzymes—enzymes capable of acting upon a broad range of substrates. Substrate and catalytic promiscuities are believed to be hallmar
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