research and clinical interventions to schools in the aftermath of violence or disaster, including natural disasters (eg., tornadoes, earthquakes), civil or regional wars (e.g., Kuwait, Croatia), catastrophic community violence (e.g., sniper attacks, school bombings, public suicides), and isolated acts of personal violence (e.g., suicides, homicides, robberies, rape). There as been increased attention to events directly affecting schools and to the school as a site of intervention. This paper elaborates on issues of prevention and early response following children’s exposure to such catastrophic events. JOURNAL OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY, 1993, Vol 8. 1991 Select Press The nature and course of children's recovery from traumatic reactions is determined by a complex set of interactions (Pynoos & Nader, l992). For example, whereas level Of exposure may be a indicator of initial reaction, (McFarLane, 1986; Pynoos, Frederick et al., 1987) the recovery environment is equally affected by the degree of ongoing distress in adult caretakers (Gleser, Green, & Winget, 1981; Lacey, 1972). Moreover, the ability of adults to restore the school to pre- trauma levels of functioning is influenced by their own levels of distress and recovery. Effective intervention, therefore, necessitates attention to the needs of all members of the traumatized community. Hence, this paper examines the roles and responses of administrators, teachers and staff, and parents as well as those of children following disaster. The following issues will be discussed.
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