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The Annual Cycle of the Energy Budget. Part I: Global Mean and Land–Ocean Exchanges

By John T. Fasullo, Kevin and E. Trenberth

Abstract

The mean and annual cycle of energy flowing into the climate system and its storage, release, and transport in the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface are estimated with recent observations. An emphasis is placed on establishing internally consistent quantitative estimates with discussion and assessment of uncertainty. At the top of the atmosphere (TOA), adjusted radiances from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are used, while in the atmosphere the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis and 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) estimates are used. The net upward surface flux (F S) over ocean is derived as the residual of the TOA and atmospheric energy budgets, and is compared with direct calculations of ocean heat content (O E) and its tendency (�O E/�t) from several ocean temperature datasets. Over land, F S from a stand-alone simulation of the Community Land Model forced by observed fields is used. A depiction o

Year: 2007
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