where t m is the model age of ice at a depth d � (H – z). 22. If the melt rate exceeds the surface accumulation rate, the thickness of an annual layer actually increases with age and depth in the ice (which is equivalent to saying that there is net convergence of flow in the horizontal plane or a slow-down along flow in a flow-line model). This situation occurs in several areas in northeast Greenland. The thinning rate can be expressed with a thinning rate factor ƒ � ε ˙ D–J ε ˙ Nye, h � 0;ƒ � ε ˙ mel
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