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Creating and Evaluating a Consensus for Negated and Speculative Words in a Swedish Clinical Corpus

By Hercules Dalianis


In this paper we describe the creation of a consensus corpus that was obtained through combining three individual annotations of the same clinical corpus in Swedish. We used a few basic rules that were executed automatically to create the consensus. The corpus contains negation words, speculative words, uncertain expressions and certain expressions. We evaluated the consensus using it for negation and speculation cue detection. We used Stanford NER, which is based on the machine learning algorithm Conditional Random Fields for the training and detection. For comparison we also used the clinical part of the BioScope Corpus and trained it with Stanford NER. For our clinical consensus corpus in Swedish we obtained a precision of 87.9 percent and a recall of 91.7 percent for negation cues, and for English with the Bioscope Corpus we obtained a precision of 97.6 percent and a recall of 96.7 percent for negation cues.

Year: 2010
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