The risk factor “unsafe sex ” has been defined here as sex between a susceptible person and a partner who has a sexually transmitted infection (STI), without taking measures to prevent infection. Unsafe sex cannot therefore be defined a priori (because sex is only unsafe with respect to the context in which it occurs), or measured directly from reported behaviours. A set of behaviours was defined as “risky sex ” and the prevalence of various behaviours was estimated for 57 countries. The prevalence of risky sex as defined here is given by the proportion of the population who have had sex in the last year with a non-co-resident partner, and who did not use a condom on the last occasion with that partner. For the comparative risk assessment (CRA) estimates, the prevalence of risky sex between men and women was the primary focus. The main outcome considered was infection with HIV, which is responsible for the majority of the burden of mortality and morbidity associated with STIs. Infections with Chlamydia trachomati
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