The level of complexity needed to develop spacecraft systems and other emerging technologies require programs to develop risk management and risk planning techniques that can potentially identify schedule and cost risks as early as possible during the acquisition life cycle. According to the Government Accountability Office (GAO), studies have shown that there has been an increase in schedule and cost overruns that involve complex systems and emerging technologies. This is often the case when projects exceed scheduled activity durations, resulting in frequent budget overruns. There are a plethora of risks that factor into inaccurate schedule estimates, including the elusive emerging requirements to the lack of process understanding. Unfortunately, it is common to observe how requirements established during the earlier stages of an acquisition life cycle are changed to accommodate customer requests, thus impacting schedule and delivery costs. These impacts invariably affect scheduled activities from the design through the development and production of the complex system. To improve implementation and the understanding of the life-cycle processes for the complex system, it is essential that the development of a work breakdown structure (WBS), or an architecture and its interfaces within the appropriate hierarchical levels of decomposition, be accurately structured. The structure of this architecture coincides with the development and implementation of activities that are required for the design, development, and production stages of the life cycle. As a result, the developed schedule activities influence the cost of delivery. Since scheduled activities impact the cost to develop complex systems, it can be shown that there is an inherent relationship between the complex systems architecture and the process activities required for schedul
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