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Reliability of equipment for measuring the ground hardness and traction

By Dara Twomey, Leonie Otago, Shahid Ullah and Caroline Finch


The aim of this paper is to report the inter-rater reliabilities and intra-rater reliabilities of the Clegg hammer, penetrometer, and studded-boot apparatus used for measuring the mechanical properties of natural turf, and to determine whether the level of experience influences the reliability. Three experienced and three novice testers measured the surface hardness and rotational traction at nine locations on a community-level Australian football oval. A repeated-measures analysis of variance tested for significant differences between the six testers for all equipment, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to determine the inter-rater reliabilities and intra-rater reliabilities. The ICCs for the reliability between the six testers ranged between 0.77 and 0.87 for the Clegg hammer, ranged between 0.55 and 0.73 for the penetrometer, and equalled 0.51 for the studded-boot apparatus. The inter-rater reliabilities and intra-rater reliabilities were greater for the experienced testers than for the novice testers for the Clegg hammer and penetrometer but the novice testers produced greater inter-rater reliabilities for the studded-boot apparatus. This study highlights the potential variability that can exist between testers using the ground hardness and traction equipment, which has implications for future research involving multiple testers both in agronomic-based studies and in linking the surface properties to the injury risk across multiple venues. © Authors 2011

Topics: 09 Engineering, 11 Medical and Health Sciences, Clegg hammer, Ground hardness, Penetrometer, Reliability, Rotational traction, Correlation coefficient, Injury risk, Multiple testers, Novice testers, Reliability of equipment, Surface hardness, Traction equipments, Hammers, Hardness, Surface properties, Tools, Traction (friction)
Year: 2011
DOI identifier: 10.1177/1754337111404848
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