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5 Area data



Study region R divided into n sub-regions Ai ⊆ R, i = 1,2,...,n, and observations yi = y(Ai) are collected in these areal units rather than on point locations. For the corresponding spatial process {Yi,i = 1,2,...,n}, the first order properties are described by the mean values µi = E(Yi) and the second order properties by the covariances Cov(Yi,Yj). 322 Examples of two types: administrative areas, pixel image 323 Among the articles studied in the course, Knorr-Held & Raßer (2000) dealt with administrative areas and Besag (1986) with pixel images. Methods and models developed for area data can, however, be applied also for marked point patterns, when marks are of primary interest rather than locations (Riiali et al., 2001), and for spatially continuous data to solve computational problems (Rue & Tjelmeland, 2002). On the other hand, methods for spatially continuous data can often be used for area data, especially for large pixel images

Year: 2010
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