THISPAPER REPORTS ON WORK FROM TWO STUDIES IN PROGRESS related to assessing digital library reference services and developing standards that support such services. The paper suggests that two types of standardsutilization and technical-should be considered together in the costing, statistics, and measures for digital reference services. The digital reference community has the opportunity to embed quality standards and assessment data into software and infrastructure by linking utilization and technical standards early in the evolution of digital reference markets. Such an approach would greatly enhance the collection and analysis of a range of cost data related to digital reference service. This paper outlines the current status of standards (both utilization and technical) in digital reference with special attention given to issues of cost; both costs incurred by adopting standards, as well as means of assessing cos
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