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1 How were you initially drawn to the study of computation and randomness? My first contact with the area was in 1996 when I still worked at the University of Chicago. Back then, my main interest was in structures from computability theory, such as the Turing degrees of computably enumerable sets. I analyzed them via coding with first-order formulas. During a visit to New Zealand, Cris Calude in Auckland introduced me to algorithmic information theory, a subject on which he had just finished a book [3]. We wrote a paper [4] showing that a set truth-table above the halting problem is not Martin-Löf random (in fact the proof showed that it is not even weakly random [33, 4.3.9]). I also learned about Solovay reducibility, which is a way to gauge the relative randomness of real numbers with a computably enumerable left cut. These topics, and many more, were studied either in Chaitin’s work [6] or in Solovay’s visionary, but never published, manuscript [35], of which Cris possessed a copy. l In April 2000 I returned to New Zealand. I worked with Rod Downey and Denis Hirschfeldt on the Solovay degrees of real numbers with computably enumerable left cut. We proved that this degree structure is dense, and that the top degree, the degree of Chaitin’s Ω, cannot be split into two lesser degrees [9]. During this visit I learned about K-triviality, a notion formalizing the intuitive idea of a set of natural numbers that is far from random. To understand K-triviality, we first need a bit of background. Sets of natural numbers (simply called sets below) are a main topic of study in computability theory. Sets can be “identified ” with infinite sequences of bits. Given a set A, the bit in position n has value 1 if n is in A, otherwise its value is 0. A string is a finite sequence of bits, such as 11001110110. Let K(x) denote the length of a shortest prefix-free description of a string x (sometimes called the prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity of x even though Kolmogorov didn’t introduce it). We say that K(x) is the prefix-free complexity of x. Chaitin [6] defined a set A ⊆ N to be K-trivial if each initial segment of A has prefix-free complexity no greater than the prefix-free complexity of its length. That is, there is b ∈ N such that, for each n

Year: 2010

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