driver vision, and how those lamps can be designed to provide the most benefit for the safety of emergency vehicle operations. In order to understand the overall effects of lamps on safety, it is necessary to know about the positive (intended) effects of the lamps on vehicle conspicuity, as well as any negative (unintended) effects that the lamps may have on factors such as glare and driver distraction. This research was designed to provide information about how the colors and intensities of warning lamps influence both positive and negative effects of such lamps, in both daytime and nighttime lighting conditions. Color and intensity have received considerable attention in standards covering warning lamps (e.g., SAE, 2004, 2005), and interest in these variables has recently increased because of the new options provided by the growing use of LED sources in warning lamps. Participants in this study were selected to be reasonably representative of the driving public. Two groups, based on age, were chosen to insure that some estimate could be made of how warning lamp effects might change with driver age. A static field setting was used to simulate the most important visual circumstances of situations in which drivers respond to warning lamps in actual traffic. Two vehicles with experimental warning lamps were placed s
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