This study evaluated three bias correction methods of systematic biases in column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of water vapor (XH2O) data retrieved from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) observations compared with ground-based data from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). They included an empirically multilinear regression method, altitude bias correction method, and combination of altitude and empirical correction for three cases defined by the temporal and spatial collocation around TCCON site. The results showed that large altitude differences between GOSAT observation points and TCCON instruments are the main cause of bias, and the altitude bias correction method is the most effective bias correction method. The lowest biases result from GOSAT SWIR XH2O data within a 0.5° x 0.5° latitude x longitude box centered at each TCCON site matched with TCCON XH2O data averaged over ±15 min of the GOSAT overpass time. Considering land data, the global bias changed from −1.3 ± 9.3% to −2.2 ± 8.5%, and station bias from −2.3 ± 9.0% to −1.7 ± 8.4%. In mixed land and ocean data, global bias and station bias changed from −0.3 ± 7.6% and −1.9 ± 7.1% to −0.8 ± 7.2% and −2.3 ± 6.8%, respectively, after bias correction. The results also confirmed that the fine spatial and temporal collocation criteria are necessary in bias correction methods

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This paper was published in Research Online.

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