10.31727/gzb.41.4.3

Tobacco waste in Bosnia and Herzegovina – problem or high-value material?

Abstract

Duhan se na području Bosne i Hercegovine proizvodi još od prve polovice 17. stoljeća, a sedamdesetih i osamdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća proizvodnja doživljava svoj vrhunac, nakon čega slijedi stagnacija i naglo opadanje proizvodnje. Ipak duhan se na području Bosne i Hercegovine, još uvijek uzgaja kao važna poljoprivredna kultura. Zbog neorganiziranog otkupa kao i nedostatka nadzora od strane države Bosne i Hercegovine nad proizvodnjom duhana, proizvođači svu svoju proizvodnju duhana plasiraju na sivo tržište u obliku poluproizvoda, rezanog duhana, poznatog na ostalim tržištima kao hercegovačka škija, dok na području Posavine postoji organizirani otkup, no niska otkupna cijena, proizvođače stavlja u izuzetno težak položaj. Je li revitalizacija duhana na području Bosne i Hercegovine moguća? Općeprihvaćeno mišljenje je da je revitalizacija nekadašnjeg načina uzgoja duhana zbog promjena preferencija potrošača, tipova cigareta i promjene tehnologije obrade duhana nemoguća. No potrebno je tražiti alternativne načine plasiranja ovih tipova duhana, kao duhana za motanje, te kao autohtonih proizvoda. Jedna od najvažnijih komponenti je i uloga države, s obzirom da duhan podliježe posebnom sustavu trošarina i poreza. U lancu vrijednosti, od poljoprivrednih proizvođača, do prerađivača, važna komponenta je i zbrinjavanje otpada. S obzirom da je duhanski otpad, bogat izvor visokovrijednih komponenti koje su i prikazane u ovom preglednom radu, njegovo iskorištavanje moglo bi dati dodatnu vrijednost i podići nisku otkupnu cijenu duhana, a ujedno riješiti i problem zbrinjavanja ovog opasnog otpada.Tobacco has been produced in Bosnia and Herzegovina since the first half of the 17th century, and during the 70’s and 80’s of the 20th century, the manufacturing has reached its peak. After that period, the production rapidly stagnates. However, tobacco is still being cultivated in many areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina as an important crop. Due to the unorganized buyout as well as the lack of tobacco growing supervision from the authorities, tobacco manufacturers launch their products to grey markets as semi-manufactured products. On the other markets these products are well-known as Herzegovinian škija. In the Posavina region there is an organized buyout, but the buying prices are low and it puts the manufacturers in a difficult position. Is the revitalization of tobacco growing possible? The opinion is that the revitalization of the traditional growing of tobacco is impossible due to the changes in consumers’ preferences, in types of cigarettes and in the manufacturing technology. However, there is a need to search for alternative launching ways for these tobacco sorts, with a focus on rolling tobacco and other local products. The role of the state plays one of the most important components, because there are special excise duties as well as a tax system on tobacco. In this value chain, from growing to the processing of the product, waste management plays an important role. Due to the fact that tobacco waste is a rich source of valuable components which is reviewed in this paper, its usage could present an added value and increase the tobacco prices, and, at the same time, solve the problem of disposing this dangerous waste

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