Neciljana toksičnost novih insekticida

Abstract

Humans have used insecticides since ancient times. The spectrum and potency of available insecticidal substances has greatly expanded since the industrial revolution, resulting in widespread use and unforeseen levels of synthetic chemicals in the environment. Concerns about the toxic effects of these new chemicals on non-target species became public soon after their appearance, which eventually led to the restrictions of use. At the same time, new, more environmentally-friendly insecticides have been developed, based on naturally occurring chemicals, such as pyrethroids (derivatives of pyrethrin), neonicotinoids (derivatives of nicotine), and insecticides based on the neem tree vegetable oil (Azadirachta indica), predominantly azadirachtin. Although these new substances are more selective toward pest insects, they can still target other organisms. Neonicotinoids, for example, have been implicated in the decline of the bee population worldwide. This review summarises recent literature published on non-target toxicity of neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, and neem-based insecticidal substances, with a special emphasis on neonicotinoid toxicity in honeybees. We also touch upon the effects of pesticide combinations and documented human exposure to these substances.Ljudi su upotrebljavali insekticide od davnih vremena. Spektar i potentnost dostupnih insekticidnih supstancija značajno su se proširili od industrijske revolucije, vodeći širokoj upotrebi i neviđenim količinama sintetskih kemikalija u okolišu. Zbog toksičnih učinaka tih novih kemikalija na neciljane vrste javnost je ubrzo pokazala veliku zabrinutost, što je dovelo do ograničenja u korištenju tih insekticidnih supstancija. Istovremeno dolazi do razvoja novih metoda u održivoj poljoprivredi, među kojima i razvoj novih insekticida na osnovi prirodno prisutnih kemikalija, poput piretroida (derivati piretrina iz suncokreta) i neonikotinoida (derivati nikotina). Dodatni su primjer insekticidi na bazi biljnog ulja iz drveta nima (Azadirachta indica), dominantno azadiraktin. Iako su te nove supstancije selektivnije prema insektima, poteškoće nastaju s njihovom neciljanom toksičnošću, poput one neonikotinoida, koji su utjecali na pad populacije pčela na globalnoj razini. Ovaj pregled sažima nedavnu literaturu o neciljanoj toksičnosti neonikotinoida, piretroida i insekticidnih supstancija na bazi nima, s naglaskom na toksičnosti neonikotinoida za pčele. Također ćemo se dotaknuti učinaka mješavina pesticida, kao i zabilježene ljudske izloženosti tim supstancijama

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