Adults have difficulty discriminating nonnative phonetic contrasts, but under certain circumstances training can lead to improvement in this ability. Despite the ubiquitous use of performance feedback in training paradigms in this and many other domains, the mechanisms by which feedback affects learning are not well understood. In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined how performance feedback is processed during perceptual learning. Thirteen Japanese speakers for whom the English phonemes [r] and [l] were nondistinct performed an identification task of the words ‘‘road’’ and ‘‘load’’ that has been shown to be effective in inducing learning only when performance feedback is present. Each subject performed alternating runs of training with and without feedback, followed by performance of a cardguessing task with monetary reward and punishment out
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