...... Today’s processors are so complex that design validation and testing is a major bottleneck, often accounting for 50 to 70 percent of processor development time. 1 Yet, despite all the labor and computing resources invested in verification, many defects still slip into production silicon. At that point, dealing with them can be very costly. Specifically, if a manufacturer finds serious errors before the chip is released, the costs involve the engineering time required to debug and fix the errors; the direct fabrication costs associated with a chip respin, including new masks; and, especially, the lost revenue attributable t
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