Abstract: Climate change is already affecting European biodiversity, as demonstrated by changes in species ’ ranges and ecosystem boundaries, shifts in reproductive cycles and growing seasons, and changes to the complex ways in which species interact (predation, pollination, competition and disease). These effects vary between regions and ecosystems. Strategies adopted to mitigate or adapt to climate change also impact biodiversity. And land use changes with subsequent changes to biodiversity can also alter levels of greenhouse gas emissions thus affecting the global climate. This article describes the many linkages between climate and biodiversity. It stresses the need for more integrated policy responses, at international, regional and national levels. Nationally, activities that meet biodiversity and climate change objectives need promoting and mainstreaming into various sectoral areas of policy making. Reducing energy consumption, increasing energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy technologies are priorities. Activities which meet both climate and biodiversity objectives also need exploring. These include adopting new landscape management approaches, and ensuring that carbon sequestration projects and renewable energy projects incorporate biodiversity considerations
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