Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have found more and more applications in a variety of per-vasive computing environments. However, how to support the development, maintenance, deployment and execution of applications over WSNs remains to be a nontrivial and challenging task, mainly because of the gap between the high level requirements from pervasive computing applications and the underlying operation of WSNs. Middleware for WSN can help bridge the gap and remove impediments. In recent years, research has been carried out to study WSN middleware from different aspects and for different purposes. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the existing works on WSN middleware, seeking for a better understanding of the current issues and future directions in this field. We propose a reference framework to analyze the functionalities of WSN middleware in terms of the system abstrac-tions and the services provided. We review the approaches and techniques for implementing the services. Based on the analysis and using a feature tree, we provide taxonomy of the features of WSN middleware and their relationships, and use the taxonomy to classify and evaluate existing works. We also discuss open problems in this important area of research
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