Lecture 3. From pictorial to multimodal metaphor In this lecture, we will ponder some of the opportunities and limitations of the four pictorial metaphor subtypes distinguished in Lecture 2: contextual metaphor; hybrid metaphor, simile, and integrated metaphor. Moreover, in order to anticipate the analyses of multimodal metaphor in Lecture 4, the concept of multimodality in general and of multimodal metaphor specifically will be discussed. Reflections on the various types of pictorial metaphor Contextual metaphor. Of the four types, metaphors of the contextual variety come closest to the idea of a collage. A certain visually represented thing is placed in an unexpected visual context, namely in a context which strongly cues something else instead. Typically, the representation results in a metaphorical statement about the first thing in terms of the latter. Thus the visually represented thing is the target of the metaphor and the visually suggested thing its source. It is the visual context that allows the spectator to infer the identity of the source. That it is the target of the metaphor that is visually represented an
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