Abstract — Localization schemes using hop-counts to reference nodes of known positions have been proposed to localize nodes in a sensor network. However, these schemes usually work well only when the networks have uniform and dense node distribution. In view of this, a novel Density-aware Hop-count Localization (DHL) algorithm is described here to improve the accuracy of location estimation when the node distribution is non-uniform. When the density is low, each hop traversed is not necessarily equivalent to the maximum range distance. A range ratio is used to adjust the accumulated hop-count and this effectively reduces distance overestimation. Comparing to the algorithms without density consideration, simulations show that our algorithm improves the localization accuracy. In addition, the overhead incurred by DHL is found to be lower than that incurred by conventional schemes. Keywords- Density-awareness; Localization; Sensor Networks. I
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